As surgical procedures have evolved, there has been a move towards “less invasive” procedures. Colloquially this type of surgery has been called “keyhole surgery” (endoscopic surgery).
Smaller and smaller entry holes now are used to gain access to the areas that need an operation. In Gynaecology the two main areas of endoscopic surgery are:
1. Hysteroscopic Surgery
Hysteroscopic surgery is performed using a small telescope inserted into the uterus. This allows operations to be performed under direct vision, making for very accurate surgery
2. Laparoscopic Surgery (keyhole surgery)
Laparoscopic surgery is where the entry for the telescope is usually through the umbilicus (belly button). Accessory ports are inserted into the abdomen, allowing entry for the working instruments. Many operations can now be performed by this route including simple procedures such as the removal of ovarian cysts, or more complex surgery such as the management of endometriosis and hysterectomy, just to give a few examples.